Friday, 13 March 2020

Deal Me in Challenge: Tideline by Elizabeth Bear

Card Drawn:



"Tideline" is my first introduction to Elizabeth Bear and if this poignant short-story is any indicator of her talents as a Science-Fiction writer, she is definitely someone to keep an eye on. She seems to have embraced the "show, don't tell" methodology because this is a tightly woven story without excess or dense details. A subtle and delicate work, Bear's understated approach requires the reader to fill in the gaps of an otherwise ambiguous narrative. 

The premise is quite simple--a wounded battle robot named Chalcedony washes up on the shore of a beach where she befriends an impoverished young boy named Belvedere. The robot is programmed as female and her motherly instincts kick in to protect and nourish the boy. The isolated beach setting produces a post-apocalyptic vibe. There is the suggestion of a war going on in the background or perhaps it is over but none of the details are ever made clear. All we know for sure is that some kind of battle took place and Chalcedony is the only survivor. The story demands for a more inferential understanding, openly inviting the reader to resolve its many dissonances. Badly damaged along with her backup fuel cells running out, she has taken on one final mission to make "mourning jewelry" out of different shipwreck beads, pearls, sedimentary rocks and shells for all her fallen comrades before she is swept away by the tide. The dramatic tension springs from Chalcedony's race against time and her ostensibly innocuous task becomes charged with meaning. She wants to preserve the memories of her fellow soldiers with the necklaces but also by sharing their heroic stories with Belvedere.

What constitutes the story's subtlety and reliance on inference is that we only get Chalcedony's limited point of view. The elliptical story-telling allows the author to focus less on plot and more on a compressed style of deep characterization. Chalcedony's anthropomorphic personality and nuances are so fully realized that she almost seems human. Her evolving relationship with Belvedere forms the crux of the story, which is heartfelt and very moving. Bear displays a deft hand at developing a convincing and empathetic protagonist with a brevity of style inherent in the short-story form. 



Wednesday, 11 March 2020

Brown Girl in the Ring by Nalo Hopkinson

Mama Obeah, give us strength.
Let's face it: both the science-fiction and fantasy genres are often white-washed and severely lacking in racially diverse voices, especially when it comes to the representation of black experiences. Nalo Hopkinson is Jamaican-Canadian and a queer black woman based in Toronto--my hometown, which is pretty cool. She is a member of an emerging Afro-Futurism literary movement that most scholars agree was spearheaded by prominent black writers during the 1970's and 1980's such Octavia Butler and Samuel Delaney. In her debut novel, Hopkinson has decided to put her own Afro-Caribbean spin on the urban-fantasy genre but the end result is a wildly uneven effort. Perhaps some of the novel's faults can be attributed to this being a first novel but it pains me to say that there really is not a whole lot to recommend here. The story feels overly familiar and bogged down by cliches, blatant inconsistencies, triviality and aimlessness. The prose is unpolished and clunky. The characters are flat, unconvincing and one-dimensional. My main criticism is the weak female protagonist. She is often clueless and makes such baffling decisions, helped steadily along by happenstance. The lack of an emotionally engaging and sympathetic character whose personal demons are believable does not allow us to become personally invested in the story. Also, don't get me started on the main villain who is so cartoonish that it is downright laughable. 

On a more positive note, the use of Caribbean patois/vernacular is refreshing and the magic system is somewhat unique although I wish the author had delved more into it's complexity and cultural roots. She incorporates voodoo and Caribbean folk-lore into her post-apocalyptic setting of Toronto (it was fun to recognize the various streets and places mentioned) that has become ghettoized, overrun by poverty, crime, violence and drugs. A highly addictive substance has hit the streets and is causing mayhem. All the rich people have moved outside the city to the suburbs leaving Toronto in the hands of gangs. Again, we have seen a similar kind of set-up like this many times before. I don't mind if authors rely on using familiar genre conventions, just back it up with good writing and make it interesting in some way. Unfortunately, Hopkinson does neither of these very well and the novel often feels rather dull and disjointed as it trudges along towards a lackluster deus ex machina ending. Nonetheless, I will give her kudos for having the CN Tower as the crime lord's headquarters.


We certainly need more authors of color to be recognized in the SF/Fantasy genre and while this novel was disappointing, Nalo Hopkinson demonstrates that she has a creative imagination but has not yet hit her stride as an accomplished writer. 



Tuesday, 10 March 2020

Lincoln in the Bardo by George Saunders


Who ya gonna call? Ghostbusters!

I'm not usually persuaded to pick up a book based on prestigious literary awards but I was curious to see what all the hoopla was about surrounding this Man Booker Prize winner from 2017. My only encounter with George Saunders was a short-story that I read in the New Yorker years ago that has completely faded from memory. I honestly couldn't even tell you what it was about but do remember it being really really weird and feeling rather indifferent about it. I pretty much had the exact same emotional response to Saunders' first novel, Lincoln in the Bardo, which contains probably, if not, the most bizarre and unique narrative structure that I have ever encountered. In fact, I'm pretty sure there has never been a novel that has ever been written in this particular style before. Please correct me if I'm wrong. Saunders utilizes a play-like structure with a vast number of speaking voices, interspersed with fragments of historical documentation, letters, journals and various anecdotes (some real, some fictionalized). His experimental style is bound to frustrate readers expecting a more linear narrative and I can totally understand why this novel was been met with harsh criticism by those who may have been expecting any semblance of 'plot' or well-developed characters. Saunders does not just deconstruct the novel, he decimates it with a sledgehammer. 

This text is a perfect example of what literary critic Linda Hutcheon refers to as "historiographic meta-fiction," which is just another fancy way of saying that it is highly self-reflexive and inherently paradoxical while problematizing the relationship between history and fiction. The movement from realism to post-modernism in this novel is an important moment of transition, encapsulating a shift in genre and consciousness. The fragmented narrative shows unity through disunity; celebrating multiple truths instead of just one overarching truth. The separation from literary tradition is relevant to any poetics of post-modernism and Saunders enthusiastically eschews with any linear succession of historical writing; he presents a striking denunciation of empiricism and objective truth. By not being bound to only what has happened in the past, the text confronts the paradoxes of fictive/historical representation. Saunders does a staggering amount of research on Abraham Lincoln, which draws attention to the historiography but there are gaps in that history and fiction helps to alleviate this problem. Thus, the self-recognition of fictional artifice allows other voices who have been erased by history to speak, including Abe's son Willie along with a chorus of ghosts. Yes, Saunder even dabbles in the supernatural to reclaim these lost voices. Language is power and he gives a voice to those silenced from "official history" through a self-reflexive meta-fiction. 

If writers like Italo Calvino, Ishmael Reed or even Kurt Vonnegut are considered post-modernist writers for their subversion of literary conventions then would George Saunders be viewed as a post-post modernist writer for his radical deconstructionism? I never thought it were possible to push the boundaries of the novel form this far until now and it makes me wonder: what's next, a novel comprising of grocery lists, scribbles or legal documents? Anyways, for me, Saunders's experimental form worked rather well for the most part to create a compelling narrative and there were some emotionally resonant moments. However, my only problem is that this particular style feels tedious at times and also a bit gimmicky once you figure out what is going on and get attuned to the rhythm of his prose.


Deal Me In Challenge: Don't Look Now by Daphne Du Maurier

Card Drawn:


Don't look now but Daphne Du Maurier delivers one of the wackiest endings of all time.
I really wanted to like this story more. Truly. My apologies go out to Jay @ Bibliophilopolis, a big fan of Daphne Du Maurier and whose glowing review of "Don't Look Now" inspired me to read it for the DMI challenge. Granted, I do not have any regrets and the author has been on my radar for quite some time so it was somewhat gratifying to finally read some of her work. The story was also adapted into a 1973 film adaptation starring Donald Sutherland and Julie Christie, which I am now curious to watch.  

This is one of the few times during this challenge that I have encountered a short-story that is too long. Condensing the narrative and removing the ridiculous ending would likely have produced a more satisfying story. In "Don't Look Now," Du Maurier embraces the macabre and supernatural, yielding mixed results. With the Gothic backdrop of Venice, it follows a couple on vacation in the beautiful city hoping to rekindle their marriage as they grieve the recent death of their young daughter. Of course, unresolved trauma and guilt tends to have a damaging effect on one's psyche, as John's (the husband) tentative grasp on reality starts to slip away. His psychosis rendered by hallucinations and paranoia is conveyed effectively enough despite being exaggerated at times almost to the point of parody. 

The unique landscape of Venice with its canals, winding pathways, hidden alleys and dark corners becomes the perfect setting for the mysterious and the uncanny. Since John's perspective is the main narrative focalization point, the reader is meant to sympathize with his plight as he falls deeper and deeper into madness but the third person narrator's attention to detail and clinical observation also creates a certain narrative distance. This stylistic choice is a double-edged sword. Du Maurier is less concerned with developing complex characters so they come across as flat, their main focus is only to move the plot along from point A to point B to point C. However, this allows her to focus all of her attention on the plot's mystery and linear progression that slowly builds suspense towards a shocking conclusion. Her primary objective is to deliver an entertaining story from start to finish although many parts do feel tedious. If Du Maurier wanted to generate a visceral reaction from the reader by the plot's denouement, then she is successful because the ending is a real shocker, albeit, in a nonsensical and laughable way. It is one of those WTF moments that completely ruins the story, turning what could have been a memorable psychological thriller into cartoonish absurdity. 


Sunday, 8 March 2020

The Conservationist by Nadine Gordimer

Ugh.


This won the Booker Prize? What a joke.

I forced myself to read this for one of my classes. Yes, I am a glutton for punishment. Gordimer's writing style is so verbose and insufferable to read. Sure, she tackles big issues of colonialism and race relations in apartheid South Africa (during the 60s? 70s?) but I for one found it difficult to care about anything going on in this novel. The story is about some rich, misogynistic white dude who owns a farm in rural South Africa and tries desperately to form an intimate relationship with the land but he can't since he is, uh, white and the land doesn't belong to him in the first place since his colonial predecessors stole the land from the native Africans. He continues to uphold their conservative principles of white privilege and colonial power. Oh, a dead body also shows up on his property. He is pretty upset about this and complains to the authorities but since it is a dead black body, they don't really care. Racism and all that.

The novel is full of ironies. He is a business man and venture capitalist but also, as the title indicates, a "conservationist" (how clever!). He is referred to as a farmer but ironically, does not do any farming at all. Instead, he exploits the labor of his black workers (what else is new). In one of many bizarre scenes, he fingers a girl on a plane (Gordimer embellishes this sexual violation with such lengthy poetic detail that it is cringe-worthy) and in the attempt to become one with nature, he crouches down in his field to unload his bowels. No, I am not kidding--this really happens. I could be wrong but perhaps his act of defecation on the land is symbolic of the white colonialists who all took a massive shit on Africa. Maybe. 

Anyways, I am sure post-colonial critics will find plenty to say about the novel, especially its employment of heavy symbolism while also praising her narrative techniques (I for one found her stream-of-consciousness and free-indirect discourse bloody annoying). Furthermore, reading this novel within the ideologically framework of cosmopolitanism could make for some interesting discussion on white colonialism but quite frankly, who cares.


Thursday, 5 March 2020

Deal Me In Challenge: The Garden of Forking Paths by Jorge Luis Borges

Card Drawn:


You remind of the babe (what babe?) / The babe with the power (what power) / The power of Voodoo (who do?) / You do (do what?) / Remind me of the babe.
Borges' stories are always highly self-reflexive and consistently reveal their own narrativity. "The Garden of Forking Paths" is no exception. The structuring of a detective story within a labyrinth framework produces a chiasmus effect, different narrative levels folding on themselves in an array of paradoxical reversals. Suffice it to say, this is one confusing story. It begins with the description from a history textbook about a strategic attack by the Germans against the British during WWI, accompanied with a statement written by a Dr. Yu Tsun to corroborate the historical facts. However, it is also revealed by the third-person narrator that the two first pages are missing from Tsun's personal document. Confused yet? Narrative gaps, fragmentation and lacuna are some of Borges' favorite literary motifs to employ in his stories to generate a sense of confounded mystery. He then drops various clues and riddles along the way for the reader to solve. For example, take this little nugget: 


"He who is to perform a horrendous act should imagine to himself that it is already done, should impose upon himself a future as irrevocable as the past."

On the surface, this statement seems like harmless philosophical musing but nothing in a Borges story is by accident. Once the proper context has been established, the reader can go back and realize that the author has been alluding to time as a paradoxical bifurcation, projecting unrealized versions of events. The ideological fallibility of free-will and the self-reflexive 'authorial voice' will also be featured prominently in the story. 

Beginning in medias res because of the missing pages, Dr. Yu Tsun's first-person narration makes up the bulk of the story. He is a Chinese-German spy in England and suspected of murder by authorities, led by a Capt. Richard Madden. He claims to have been forced into espionage even though the Germans are racist towards the Chinese and is driven by a sense of pride, wanting to prove that "yellow man could save his armies." Weird depictions of Orientalism aside, he is caught in a deadly game of cat and mouse, desperate to place important military information into the right hands before getting caught. This brings us to the next frame narrative: Dr. Stephen Albert, a renowned sinologist (someone who studies China) who is sought out by Dr. Yu Tsun for reasons that are bewildering at first but made clear by the story's end. Coincidentally (or not?), Dr. Stephen Albert is a leading expert on the works of Tsui Pen who also happens to be Dr. Yu Tsun's grandfather. He was famous for an obscure novel and constructing a "labyrinth in which all men would lose their way." Pen was murdered, leaving behind an indecipherable novel and the actual labyrinth was never found. I will not reveal what happens next, only to say that it is totally mind-blowing. 

This story is an elaborate puzzle or to put it another way: a literal and figurative labyrinth full of unexpected twists and turns, contradictions and paradoxes. A metaphysical concept of time becomes integral to understanding Borges' paradoxical narrative construction containing an infinite web of possibilities occurring simultaneously. Borges' convoluted narrative and circumlocutions might initially seem like they serve no discernible purpose but the creative way all of the different narrative threads interconnect and come full circle in the end is nothing short of genius. 


Wednesday, 4 March 2020

Deal Me In Challenge: Jokester by Isaac Asimov

Card Drawn:


What's the difference between a well dressed man on a bike and a poorly dressed man on a unicycle? Attire.

The Multivac supercomputer makes several other appearances in Isaac Asimov's short-fiction, most notably The Last Question, which is an ironic re-telling of Genesis from the Bible. An absolutely mind-blowing story and I cannot recommend it enough. However, in "Jokester," Asimov is not so much interested in the religion vs. science debate; rather, epistemology takes center stage but in a very surprising way that deviates from any expected ontological discourses. Instead, he proposes a seemingly innocuous question: Where do jokes come from? This philosophical conundrum binds and structures Asimov's text, setting up the reader to play along as an audience member that is listening to an elaborate joke with a comedic punch-line at the climax, consisting of irresolvable ironies. The entire conceit is cleverly orchestrated by Asimov.

The advanced technology of Multivac is able to store and process vast amounts of information at an exponential rate, capable of answering the most complex questions in the universe. However, only a select few on Earth, referred to as Grand Masters, are able to properly communicate with Multivac. Meyerhof, the protagonist, is one of these rare great minds. He is depicted as a stereotypical scientist upholding rationalism and lacking a sense of humor. As a Grand Master, he is socially awkward and alienated by others because of his superior intellect. In an attempt to fit in with his colleagues, he has resorted to telling funny jokes and has earned the reputation as a jokester. However, one of his colleagues, a senior analyst named Whistler, catches him feeding Multivac jokes in order to receive new jokes. This is a violation of company policy since Meyerhof should be using Multivac to improve mankind rather than for personal reasons. Asimov maintains a lighthearted and sardonic tone throughout the story. Additionally, he seems to be satirizing government bureaucracy and the morality of scientific research. 

The ending is wonderful in all of its ironic splendor, revealing that the joke has been on us, as readers, the entire time. Like any great comedian, Asimov has been meticulously setting up the joke so that the punch-line lands in an unexpected way, which is both funny and profound. 


Tuesday, 3 March 2020

February Recap

Please stop snowing.
It's hard to believe that March is already upon us! I'm glad that this brutal winter is almost over and we can actually spend some time outdoors without freezing to death. February was a busy month for me, both in my personal life and reading-wise. Considering my hectic schedule, I somehow managed to squeeze in a fair amount of reading even though it was mostly short-stories. I returned to blogging from a three year hiatus in mid-January with the intention of slowly getting back into reading and writing reviews again. The Deal Me In Challenge has certainly helped a great deal with rejuvenating my love for literature, especially short-fiction. 52 cards in a deck, 52 weeks in a year so that equates to one short story a week. Initially, that seemed like a very reasonable goal without feeling overwhelmed although I did not anticipate that reading short-stories would turn into full-blown obsession. I am now way ahead of schedule and actually thinking about trying to read 365 short-stories for the year! Do you think this is feasible or a fool's errand? Getting burnt out by reading so much over a short period of time is always a risk. Nonetheless, I have had the pleasure of discovering fantastic stories along the way as well as some new favorite authors, most notably Haruki Murakami:

Handsome fella.
Favorite short-story so far: The Year of Spaghetti by Haruki Murkami

Least favorite short-story so far: Poor Yorick by Theodore Sturgeon

I have also decided to take on the Back to the Classics Challenge, which is an extenuation of the Classics Club Challenge that I started on this blog back in 2011. Yikes, that feels like ages ago. There are several intimidating titles on my list such as The Brothers Karamazov by Dostoeyevsky and Moby Dick by Herman Melville but I am still excited to read them. These hefty tomes have been weighing down my shelves for years. Speaking of lengthy works, I am currently reading:


Thick.
Tolstoy's writing is impeccable or maybe that has something to do with the amazing translation by Peaver and Volokhonsky. This is a slow burn and the author is meticulous in exploring the psychological complexities of the many characters. In terms of plot, nothing has really happened yet but the novel is still deeply engaging because it is such a rich character study and there are many interconnected story-lines occurring simultaneously that keeps the narrative momentum flowing. Throw in some compelling philosophical, religious and political discourse along the way and you got me hooked. For me, Levin has established himself as the more interesting characters among the massive cast and I am curious to see how his story-line develops. However, I can do without Kitty's annoying histrionics. Despite my short-attention span when it comes to reading novels with 800+ pages, I am actually making decent progress and surprised by the accessible language, which is making for a quite the captivating read. I am only on Part II and sitting at 25% according to my kindle. Not too shabby. Only 16 hours and 4 minutes to go!

Let's hope March proves to be another productive month of reading and posting on this blog.

Friday, 28 February 2020

Deal Me In Challenge: The Landlady by Roald Dahl

Card Drawn:


Ding-dong.
Up until quite recently, I did not know that Roald Dahl was such a prolific short-story writer. I will always associate him with fond childhood memories and learning to read during grade-school. Like so many other kids, I was obsessed with his books, reading them over and over again until the pages fell out: Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, James and the Giant Peach, The Witches, Matilda, The Twits. All classics. His books sparked my young imagination and I was totally enchanted by Dahl's immersive story-telling skills. My lifelong love for reading probably started around this time.    

Roald Dahl's stories always had a dark sense of humor about them and were also quite creepy ("The Witches" definitely freaked me out as a kid) but "The Landlady" turned out to be surprisingly macabre for an author known mostly for his children's stories. The premise is quite simple: Billy Weaver is a young man traveling the English countryside and is in need of lodging for the night. He comes across a quaint little bed and breakfast that catches his eye and is met by a slightly odd but solicitous landlady who is very eager to have him as one of her guests. Everything seems pretty normal at first until Billy notices that the landlady is fond of creepy-looking animal taxidermy and also urges him to sign the guest book, which he discovers only has two names listed from several years ago. Dahl seems more concerned with creating an ominous and unsettling mood rather than focusing on plot, which is predictably formulaic. It would not be a spoiler to say that Billy Weaver is doomed from the moment he rings the doorbell but the fun in reading this story is to relish in Dahl's playful invention and twisted dark humor. The gloomy atmosphere and depiction of the devilishly creepy landlady provides plenty of foreshadowing so the "surprise ending" is not really a surprise at all since the author makes it obvious pretty early on that things won't end well for Billy. A brief short-story that is entertaining in a darkly amusing way but a far-cry from the high level of quality writing expected from Dahl. 


Monday, 24 February 2020

Deal Me In Challenge: For Esmé—with Love and Squalor by J.D. Salinger

Card Drawn:

Shhhh...it's me. J.D. 
I will always have a soft spot for J.D. Salinger because he was instrumental during my formative years when reading became my obsession. After being introduced to Catcher in the Rye along with a few of his other short-stories by my high-school English teacher (thank you Mrs. Bordo!), my intense passion for literature sent me into a complete reading frenzy--hence, the name of my blog. Catcher in the Rye was a cathartic experience and unlike anything I had ever encountered before up until that point. It was as if a switch went off in my brain allowing me to recognize that fiction could be so much more than just entertaining stories--it was an art form capable of evoking powerful emotions while connecting with me on a deeply personal level. From that moment on I wanted to be writer just like Salinger, or at the very least, become an English teacher so that maybe one day I could inspire a new generation of young people to fall in love with literature. Suffice it to say, my life turned out quite different than initially planned. Years down the road I eventually got around to reading Franny and Zooey (my review can be found HERE), which blew me away. Salinger could do no wrong in my eyes. It has been nine years since I have read anything else by him so you can understand my excitement and high expectations for this story.

"For Esme with Love and Squalor" is proving to be one of the most difficult reviews to write for the DMI challenge because it left me with so many mixed feelings. I have read this story twice now and still cannot decide if it is worthy of all the hype or a flawed piece of cloying sentimentalism. I seem to fall somewhere in the middle. Many critics would probably agree that Salinger's writing was molded by his traumatic experiences in WWII and this story is explicit in its portrayal of a solider suffering from PTSD before this diagnosis was even properly recognized by the medical community as a legitimate psychological condition. The narrative is split into two sections: Part 1 is the first person narrative by an unnamed solider before going to training camp and his encounter with the young choir girl at the tea shop. Part 2 switches to a third person narrator and follows the mysterious Sergeant X who is stationed at a military recovery home after the war is over. 

Salinger, of course, delights in teasing the reader through misdirection, ambiguity and withholding key information--he only offers us a fragmented glimpse into the lives of these characters. Moreover, it is also important to keep in mind that the solider claims to be a "professional short-story writer" and is self-conscious about the art of fiction. He is consciously aware about the actual narrative process, subtly drawing attention to the story's artifice through irony and parody. The ironic tone is most prevalent in the first section, especially during the lengthy scene at the tea shop when the solider and Esme meet after she first captures his attention while singing at a church choir practice. She is a precocious thirteen year old girl and her adult sophistication is deliberate on Salinger's part; reminding the reader of the text's artifice, undermining certain expectations and the desire for verisimilitude. She is meant to appear contrived and much of her dialogue feels forced, almost unnatural. If Esme is to be understood as a metaphorical representation of innocence, purity and unconditional love, then Salinger seems to be parodying such sentimental notions. Are we to believe that they share a genuine love for each other after only a brief meeting? The whole situation is absurd and that is the point. The subject of writing comes up during their conversation and she asks the solider to write a story for her: "Make it extremely squalid and moving," she suggested. "Are you at all acquainted with squalor?" Notice that Esme misinterprets the meaning of "squalor" and this inherent irony is the main thematic link between Part 1 and Part 2: the quixotic notion that love conquers the squalor of war.

Another example of the narrator's self-reflexivity occurs when he directly addresses the reader in the first section before the story transitions into the second part with Sergeant X: 


"This is the squalid, or moving, part of the story, and the scene changes. The people change too. I'm still around, but from here on in, for reasons I am not at liberty to disclose, I've disguised myself so cunningly that even the cleverest reader will fail to recognize me."

Again, Salinger is being deliberately playful here, emphasizing the unreliable narrator's self-conscious mediation of the actual story. Sergeant X is not fooling anyone about his true identity and that is why it is so important recognize the use of irony and parodic elements at work in Part 1. The juxtaposition between innocence (Esme) and the squalor of war (filth, chaos, death) becomes most pronounced by Sergeant X's nervous breakdown. The reader must decide for themselves if love conquers squalor but it is impossible for me not to interpret the ending as a parody of sentimentalism: Esme sends her dead father's wrist-watch to Sergeant X and this romantic gesture of love supposedly cures him of his PTSD. This scene is exaggerated as parody, further highlighting the story's preoccupation with artifice. The final line is indicative of the self-conscious narrator's mimetic narrative construction: "You take a really sleepy man, Esme, and he always stands a chance of again becoming a man with all his fac--with all his f-a-c-u-l-t-i-e-s intact." Paradoxically, Sergeant X is the story's authorial voice, as he attempts to create a sense of order and meaning within his damaged psyche caused by the "squalor" of war.

I'm so torn. There is much to admire in this story such as Salinger's deft prose and ironic sensibility. However, the narrative can feel tedious and also quite frustrating in its idiosyncratic style, especially during the first section. Objectively, I can see why this is such a celebrated short-story but for me, the self-conscious artifice and parody takes away from the story's emotional impact. Maybe a third reading will change my mind.



Sunday, 23 February 2020

This Is How You Lose Her by Junot Diaz


Quite possibly the best collection of short stories that I have ever read. An anomoly indeed, since most collections are rarely ever this consistent in quality. While some stories are more engaging than others, there are no weak links amongst them. From the sensational opener "The Sun, The Moon, the Stars," which sets the ironic tone for the entire collection; to "Alma" about a devastating break-up with a college girlfriend because of the narrator's infidelity (clearly a recurring theme); to "Miss Lora" about the young narrator's affair with an older woman; culminating in the incredible final story "The Cheaters Guide to Love," an explicit parody of the instructional manual that ironically teaches men 'how to' perpetuate cultural stereotypes and perform masculinity. All of these stories showcase Diaz's mastery of the form--his innovative use of language, narrative voice and literary technique is nothing short of dazzling. "The Cheaters Guide to Love" absolutely floored me and is worthy of an extensive analysis. As a matter of fact, each story deserves it's own review and I plan on doing that at some point. 

Diaz is easily one of the most exciting new voices that I have come across in contemporary literature. He is a stylistic virtuoso, a literary rock-star. Nobody out there writes like him. For me, his talents as a great writer are demonstrated by his playfulness, irreverent humor and ironic engagement with racial and gender stereotypes. While constantly pushing the boundaries of the modern short-story form by cleverly dismantling its conventional boundaries, he delivers something truly unique, especially in regards to his representation of the subjective-self. Yunior is the narrator for almost all of these stories but he uses a second-person narrative voice that seemingly has several functions: (1) self-reflexivity invoked by the "you" pronoun allows for pensive contemplation, self-criticism (ex: racialized self-hatred); (2) ironic pedagogical instruction intended for younger self but also implicates the reader;  (3) clever and funny narrative voice makes him likable and sympathetic even though he is mostly unpleasant and down-right despicable at times; (4) healing through the creative process of writing; and (5) parody of self-help books. I will try my best to go into greater detail within the individual reviews regarding any of these important aspects, concomitant with the fascinating second-person narrative voice. Additionally, complex issues such as race, gender, sexual politics and class are also worth exploring.  

Most notably, Yunior along with other male characters are not always embodying stereotypical Latin machismo on a conscious level; rather, they are influenced by cultural gender norms. They are portrayed as complex human beings, struggling with their identity as racialized individuals in an oppressive American society. Moreover, Diaz is keen to emphasize the damaging psychological effects of cultural memory and its inextricable link to destructive male behavior, especially towards women. He offers an insightful critique of intergenerational trauma and sexism (patriarchy, heteranormativity, male chauvinism, etc.) within a post-colonial context. Anyone who claims that the short-story is a "minor" literary art form will certainly be proven wrong with this amazing collection. These stories possess an explosive energy and emotional complexity of human experience that is  provocative, edgy, intelligent and surprisingly poignant. 

However, it's a shame with all the #MeToo controversy surrounding Diaz over the last few years concerning his abusive and unprofessional behavior towards multiple women who have all spoken out against him. I find it somewhat ironic if we are to interpret many of these stories from This Is How You Loser Her as being semi-autobiographical. Life imitating art? Let me clarify that I am not in any way condoning his behavior but does this controversy make me enjoy these stories any less? No. If anything, these stories have now taken on another layer of meaning: the meta-fictional elements blurring the lines even more profoundly between fiction and autobiography.

Thursday, 20 February 2020

Deal Me In Challenge: Poor Yorick by Theodore Sturgeon

Card Drawn:


"Alas, poor Yorick! I knew him, Horatio, a fellow of infinite jest, of most excellent fancy."
Hamlet is one of my favorite plays so of course I would be interested in reading a story titled "Poor Yorick" by Theodore Sturgeon who is often recognized as one of the preeminent writers from the Golden Age of science-fiction. Consider my disappointment to discover the only allusion to Shakespeare's famous play is a human skull and the story is not even remotely science-fiction. Theodore Sturgeon was a huge influence on the genre, providing inspiration for many writers such as Ray Bradbury and Kurt Vonnegut, two authors whom I hold in great esteem. Vonnegut even named one of his most famous characters after Theodore Sturgeon: Kilgore Trout (Kilgore = Theodore, Trout = Sturgeon. Get it?). Yet, after reading some of his other novels, short stories (some have already been reviewed on this blog) and now this story, he is one of those distinguished authors that has failed to really impress me. He is a writer of big ideas and I acknowledge his impact but his writing tends to come across as bland, unpolished; lacking a certain kind of poetic energy and finesse. He started off writing for the pulp-magazine market and "Poor Yorick" is one of his early stories so perhaps that might explain why it feels so insipid, bogged down by clunky prose and silly plot contrivances. 

On a more positive note, the story actually begins with a great opening sentence: "If you don't want to read an unpleasant story, we are even. Because I didn't want to write it either." A pithy and tongue-in-cheek remark that sets the tone. Good stuff. Indeed, the narrator is correct about this being an unpleasant story but for all the wrong reasons. June is a stereotypical blonde girl and her boyfriend is fighting overseas in some unnamed war. The story takes a morbid turn when he sends her a skull in the mail as a token of his love. June is thrilled and even uses it to play pranks on people. She thinks that the skull belongs to a Japanese solider because of its smaller size. Sturgeon's blatant racism is on full display. We also find out that her brother is fighting alongside the boyfriend in the same war. Later on she invites a friend over who also happens to be the family dentist (coincidence?) and he notices that the skull's teeth has two distinct fillings...the horror!  The "twist ending" is utterly ridiculous and Sturgeon gives the reader no reason to care about the outcome.


Wednesday, 19 February 2020

Deal Me In Challenge: The Ice Man by Haruki Murakami

Card Drawn:


"Dreams come from the past, not from the future. Dreams shouldn't control you--you should control them."
Another Murakami! I'm getting lucky with these diamond cards.

It is difficult to come up with a universal definition of magical realism since it embodies many different schools of thought. As an author who has written extensively in this literary mode, I prefer Salman Rushdie's interpretation, which draws attention to the contradictory aspects of the oxymoron term: "it is a commingling of the improbable and the mundane." In short, the "improbable" aspect often refers to an intrusion of reality by something magical and fantastic that is too uncanny to believe but is accepted as empirical truth. Taking Rushdie's definition into consideration, Haruki Murakami's "The Ice Man" is clearly a work of magical realism and the eponymous character is presented as a mythical figure in the folk-lore tradition. 

The story is narrated in the first person by the Ice Man's wife as she reflects upon their unconventional relationship from their  very first meeting at a ski resort ("It's hard to imagine a more appropriate place to meet an Ice Man"), to getting married much to the chagrin of friends and family and eventually moving to the south pole. He is nothing like the superhero from Marvel's X-men, bearing the same name, who takes an ice-covered form with the special ability to manipulate ice and cold into powerful attacks. Rather, this Ice Man is covered with permafrost so his body temperature always exerts coldness. He is often reserved, solitary, cold and distant; thus, The Ice-Man being an apt metaphor for someone who is taciturn and incapable of expressing their feelings. He loves his wife but is heavily withdrawn and emotionally detached, which causes her to feel empty in their marriage. His origin story is never revealed because he claims to have no past: 


"I know the past of everything else, and preserve it. But I have no past myself. I have no idea where I was born. I don't know what my parents looked like, or whether I even had any. I don't know how old I am, or if I even have an age." 

Once again, the Ice Man is emblematic of the magical realism in the story because he is presumably supernatural and surrounded by mystery that cannot be explained in rational terms. He simply exists in this world and that is enough. However, one of his many oddities is that he possesses the gift of intuitive perception but for some reason remains clueless about his wife's emotional needs to feel desired and understood: "I just know these things, like I'm looking deep into a clear block of ice. When I gaze at you like this, I can see everything about you." The inconsistencies in his character were a little confusing and difficult to grasp. Moreover, as you can see, Murakami is fond of using a cold/ice similes and metaphors but they do become a tad redundant. Here's another one: "The Ice Man was as isolated and alone as an iceberg floating in the darkness." We get it. He is a literal and figurative Ice-Man. The author returns to familiar themes of isolation and loneliness although the story seems to lack the usual pathos expected from him. Still, Murakami's beautiful writing and his occasional nuggets of wisdom help to make up for some of the story's deficiencies.



Tuesday, 18 February 2020

Deal Me In Challenge: Girl by Jamaica Kincaid (1978)

Card Drawn:


"Dukona" or Duckunoo is a traditional Jamaican dessert often with sweet potato, raisins and lots of sugar wrapped in banana leaves.
Now here is something that I have never come across before: a short story written in a single sentence! After reading the magnificent novella A Small Place, I have been eager to read more of Jamaica Kincaid's work and "Girl" is a masterful display of her literary talents. Not many writers would be able to pull this off with such precision, lyricism and depth. It is a crying shame that she is not more widely read or discussed (this is just my general impression but perhaps she actually does have a huge following unbeknownst to me) and I think that "Girl" should be essential reading for anyone interested in the creative power of the short-story.

This is a fascinating text structured around ambiguity and therefore open to much interpretationOne of the few aspects that we can claim with any certainty is that the narrative involves a dialogue between a mother and her daughter. Tone is very important here and we get a sense of an imposing mother figure based on the specific use of language, and general inflections of speech. She is speaking to her daughter in both a condescending and loving manner; offering motherly advice with a litany of "do's and dont's" with only two interjections from the daughter that are italicized. The brilliance of this story is that these two female characters are never explicitly identified by name or race but Kincaid drops various clues to suggest that they are indeed Black Caribbean women belonging to the working class. Firstly, the speaker's emphasis on a woman's customary domestic role (cooking and cleaning) is strongly suggestive of the gender construct within a postcolonial context. Secondly, food is inextricably linked to cultural identity and the many references to distinct Caribbean cuisine further re-affirms this connection. 

Also, pay attention to Kincaid's particular use of Caribbean vernacular ("wharf-raft boys") and cultural references ("Dukona", "benna", "soak salt fish overnight before you cook it"). Western readers might not immediately pick up on these nuances and it almost feels as if she is highlighting the effacement of black female voices within a Eurocentric literary context while paradoxically asserting black female empowerment through the technique of stream-of-consciousness. Presumably, the mother is providing her young daughter with important life lessons and moral instruction to become a strong independent black woman. A black feminist critique reveals that Kincaid is implicitly challenging prescribed gender roles and dominant patriarchal norms. Notice that the mother is overly concerned about her daughter's feminine virtue and sexuality. The word "slut" is repeated twice and she seems overly concerned that the daughter will fall into ruin if she is not careful. However, she also provides advice on how to carry out an abortion if necessary. The re-claiming of black female autonomy and the performance of gender is an important subtext. Despite it's short length, this is a major achievement and no mere gimmick. 


You can read this story HERE.

Monday, 17 February 2020

Deal Me In Challenge: Johnny Mnemonic by William Gibson

Card Drawn:


Before the Matrix, Keanu Reeves starred in this lesser-known SF cyberpunk thriller.

The opening sentence of "Johnny Mnemonic" by William Gibson is totally badass and indicative of the story's smooth hip-lingo and 
ultra-cool style often found in the SF cyberpunk genre: 

"I put the shotgun in an Adidas bag and padded it out with four pairs of tennis socks, not my style at all, but that was what I was aiming for: If they think you're crude, go technical; if they think you're technical, go crude."

I love this. Beginning in medias res, Gibson jumps right into the action without any explanation or context, which is disorienting and constantly challenges the reader with a fast-paced plot, jam-packed with a high density of information that can only be described as "sensory overload." What a ride. This is a familiar trope in cyberpunk that emerged in the mid 1980's  to early 1990's that was highly influenced by the aesthetic and cultural aims of the 'New Wave' from a few decades earlier but aimed to push the boundaries of science-fiction even further. Stylistically ambitious, greater attention was placed upon an experimental, avant-garde and unconventional approach to story-telling that can certainly be considered postmodernist. Moreover, many cyberpunk writers saw a return to and reworking of "Hard Science Fiction" that was also a political response to the hyper-capitalism of the Thatcher/Reagan era. 

Another salient feature of cyberpunk is pastiche or the merging of different genres and what we get here is a film-noir/hard boiled detective story (think Raymond Chandler) meets the gonzo science-fiction of Philip K. Dick but on steroids. Gibson's depiction of a near-future earth is dark, gritty and a dystopian nightmare of technology run amok. The narrator, Johnny-San, makes a living as a data-runner for the criminal underworld but not in the traditional sense: he has been augmented with hardware that allows him to store encrypted data in his brain. He gets mixed up the Yakuza and is hunted down by a cyborg assassin who has been sent to retrieve the stolen data. He meets some unusual characters along the way and perhaps that might be an understatement. For example, there is Jones the cyborg dolphin addicted to heroin who is a skilled hacker and the super-cool Molly Millions: a femme-fatale and cybernetically enhanced female assassin with blades for nails. They both team up with Johnny to help him break the code in his brain before the deadly assassin hunts them down. Their journey into 'Nighttown,' a technological wasteland inhabited by 'Lo-Tek' freaks (people living on the margins of society and unable to afford the most expensive technological upgrades on their bodies) and the final showdown on the 'Killing Floor' is full of hallucinatory weirdness.

Remember, Gibson is writing at time before the Internet existed; his prognostication of cyberspace, data piracy and hacker culture feels eerily accurate but also totally uncanny, which further highlights the story's cognitive estrangement. The dystopian dialectic of technological innovation is convincing and an all too real possibility, especially with the huge advancements being made today. The story's hard technological edge can be a little confusing because Gibson refuses to explain anything so it is up to the reader to disassemble the onslaught of techno-speak and puzzling opaqueness. He introduces new language ("Chiba", technical boy, idiot-savant mode, squids), terminology (The Killing Floor, Lo-Tek, factory custom) and unique technology (cyberspace/the matrix, superconducting quantum interfence detectors, etc) to establish a sense of 'cognitive estrangement' coined by Darko Suvin as one of main aesthetic ideologies of the Science Fiction genre. This is a wonderfully bizarre yet entertaining story that maintains a high-adrenaline intensity from start to finish. It is easy to see why Gibson is often considered one of the most influential authors of the cyberpunk genre.

My apologies for the slight digression, but I am very curious about the film version of this story and anxious to watch it. Keanu Reeves often has the reputation as a dull and uninspired actor but I seem to be in the minority who really enjoys his movies. I have also heard people say that he is a bad actor who just happens to star in really good movies. Perhaps there is truth to that statement. Granted, he is no thespian and lacks a certain emotional range but I still think he is talented with great screen-presence. Despite being a big fan of his work, I was too young when this film adaptation was released and never got around to watching it, which has become sort of a cult-classic. I think casting Keanu Reeves as Johnny is perfect because he is a character defined by his technological alterations, not personality. My initial reaction while reading this story was that it would make a great movie because of it's cinematic style, cool characters, snappy dialogue, great action scenes, dark atmosphere and such a fascinating futuristic world. There is an opportunity and so much potential to flesh out the characters and interesting story-lines, especially hinted at by the wild ending. Seriously, I would watch a movie just about the adventures of Molly Millions. I have seen the trailer and it looks incredibly cheesy but William Gibson also wrote the screenplay so how bad could it be?